My approach to creating a great product roughly follows the Design Thinking pattern of Empathize, Define, Ideate, Prototype, Test- but I often find that these steps can blur together, and the process is never that linear. It's a lot like making tea: you need lots of little adjustments while you drink a pot to make it just right.
Steep the Tea: Research
Empathize with users and define the problem space.
Pour the Tea: Generate
Ideate solutions, wireframe, and design.
Drink the Tea: Testing
Test, redesign, and prepare to handoff.
Not quite case studies, but smaller projects with UX in mind.